Sabtu, 02 Juli 2016

#153 International conservation and restoring degraded habitats

Non-governmental organisations, such as the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), play important roles in local and global conservation.

An important part of conservation is restoring degraded habitats so that they may support a flourishing community with high biodiversity.



NGOs in local and global conservation
CITES - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

  • a signed agreement to control trade of endangered species and their products
            e.g.: fur, skin, ivory,...
  • considers evidence presented to it about endangered species
           ---> assigns to 1 of 3 appendices with given criteria and trading regulations
  • sometimes CITES listings don't benefit the species:
          - species trade becomes illegal --> price for products increase --> more trade occurs



WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature - the #1 campaigning group for wildlife
  • "to stop degradation of the planet's natural environments
  • build future where humans and nature live in harmony."
- funds conservation projects
- publicises environmental issues and campaigns


Restoring degraded habitats 
so they may support a flourishing community with high biodiversity
- degradation: human activity or natural catastrophe
- restoration:
  • e.g.: small scale - farmer plants trees on land that is no longer needed for food production
  • e.g.: replanting mangrove forests
             - provides protection against storm damage, flooding, rising sea levels 
             - important nursery gounds for young fish
                  Planting trees in Haiti
             - after deforestation, soil erosion,.... 
                  Eden project, UK
             - reclamation project
             - educated people in plant biodiversity and the need for conservation






  Syllabus 2016-2018

18.3 Conservation

Maintaining biodiversity is important for many reasons. Actions to maintain biodiversity must be taken at local, national and global levels. 

 It is important to conserve ecosystems as well as individual species.

a) discuss the threats to the biodiversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (see 18.1b) 

b) discuss the reasons for the need to maintain biodiversity 

c) discuss methods of protecting endangered species, including the roles of zoos, botanic gardens, conserved areas (national parks and marine parks), ‘frozen zoos’ and seed banks 

d) discuss methods of assisted reproduction, including IVF, embryo transfer and surrogacy, used in the conservation of endangered mammals 

e) discuss the use of culling and contraceptive methods to prevent overpopulation of protected and non-protected species 

f) use examples to explain the reasons for controlling alien species 

g) discuss the roles of non-governmental organisations, such as the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), in local and global conservation 

h) outline how degraded habitats may be restored with reference to local or regional examples