Jumat, 03 April 2015

#57.2 Immunity - Syllabus 2016 - 2018

11.1  The immune system
11.2  Antibodies and vaccination


An understanding of the immune system shows how cells and molecules function  together to protect the body against infectious diseases and how the body is protected from further  infection  by the same pathogen. Phagocytosis is a more  immediate non-specific part of the immune system, while the actions of lymphocytes provide effective defence against specific  pathogens.

Learning outcomes

Candidates should  be able to:

11.1  The immune system

The immune system has non-specific and specific responses to pathogens.

Auto-immune diseases are the result  of failures in the system to distinguish between self
and non-self.

a)   state that  phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) have their origin in bone  marrow and describe their mode of action

b)   describe the modes of action of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes

c)   describe and explain the significance of the increase in white blood cell count  in humans with infectious diseases and leukaemias 

d)   explain the meaning of the term  immune response, making reference to the terms antigen, self and non-self

e)   explain the role of memory cells in long-term immunity

f) explain, with reference to myasthenia gravis, that  the immune system sometimes fails to distinguish between self and non- self

11.2  Antibodies and vaccination

Active and passive immunisations are effective ways  to treat  and prevent infectious diseases.  Smallpox has been eradicated; other diseases may soon  follow, but vaccine  development
has proved  more  difficult for diseases such  as malaria.

a)   relate  the molecular structure of antibodies to their functions (see  2.3b)

b)   outline  the hybridoma method for the production of monoclonal antibodies

c)   outline  the use  of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of disease and in the treatment of disease

d)   distinguish between active and passive, natural  and artificial immunity  and explain how vaccination can control disease

e)   discuss the reasons why vaccination programmes have eradicated smallpox,  but not measles, tuberculosis (TB), malaria or cholera