Minggu, 29 Maret 2015

# 54.2 Infectious disease - Syllabus 2016 - 2018

10.1  Infectious diseases
10.2  Antibiotics

The infectious diseases studied in this section are caused by pathogens that  are transmitted from one human host  to another. Some, like Plasmodium that  causes malaria, are transmitted by vectors; others are transmitted through water and food or during sexual  activity. An understanding of the biology of the pathogen and its mode of transmission is essential if the disease is to be controlled and ultimately prevented.

Learning outcomes

Candidates should  be able to:

10.1  Infectious diseases

While many  infectious diseases have been successfully controlled in some parts  of the world, many people worldwide are still at risk of these diseases.

a)   define  the term  disease and explain the difference between an infectious disease and a non-infectious disease (limited to sickle cell anaemia and lung cancer)

b)   state the name and type  of causative organism (pathogen) of each  of the following diseases: cholera,  malaria, tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS, smallpox  and measles (detailed  knowledge of structure is not required. For smallpox  (Variola) and measles (Morbillivirus) only the name of genus is needed)

c)   explain how cholera,  measles, malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS are transmitted

d)   discuss the biological, social and economic factors that  need to be considered in the prevention and control of cholera, measles, malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS (a detailed study  of the life cycle of the malarial parasite is not required)

e)   discuss the factors that  influence the global patterns of distribution of malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS and assess the importance of these diseases worldwide

10.2  Antibiotics

The ‘age of antibiotics’  began in the 1940s with the  availability of penicillin. With an increase in antibiotic  resistance is this age about  to come to an end?

a)   outline  how penicillin acts  on bacteria and why antibiotics do not affect  viruses

b)   explain in outline  how bacteria become resistant to antibiotics with reference to mutation and selection

c)   discuss the consequences of antibiotic  resistance and the steps that  can be taken  to reduce its impact