Kamis, 18 Desember 2014

#49.1 Gas exchange And Smoking Syllabus 2015

• The gas exchange system
• Smoking and smoking-related diseases

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) [PA] describe the structure of the human gas exchange system, including the microscopic structure of the walls of the trachea, bronchioles and alveoli with their associated blood vessels;

(b) [PA] describe the distribution of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells and smooth muscle in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles;

(c) describe the functions of cartilage, cilia, goblet cells, mucous glands, smooth muscle and elastic fibres in the gas exchange system;

(d) describe the process of gas exchange between air in the alveoli and the blood;

(e) describe the effects of tar and carcinogens in tobacco smoke on the gas exchange system;

(f) describe the signs and symptoms that enable diagnosis of lung cancer and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD) (emphysema and chronic bronchitis);

(g) describe the effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide on the cardiovascular system;

(h) explain how tobacco smoking contributes to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD);

(i) evaluate the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking cigarette smoking to disease and early death;

(j) discuss the difficulties in achieving a balance between preventions and cure with reference to coronary heart disease, coronary by-pass surgery and heart transplant surgery;

(k) use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.