Minggu, 09 November 2014

#43.1 Transport in mammals - Syllabus 2015

• The need for, and functioning of, a transport system in mammals
• Structure and functioning of the mammalian heart



Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(m) [PA] describe the structures of arteries, veins and capillaries and be able to recognise these vessels using the light microscope;

(n) explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries;

(o) [PA] describe the structure of red blood cells, phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) and
lymphocytes;

(p) state and explain the differences between blood, tissue fluid and lymph;

(q) describe the role of haemoglobin in carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide (including the role of carbonic anhydrase, the formation of haemoglobinic acid and carbaminohaemoglobin);

(r) describe and explain the significance of the oxygen dissociation curves of adult oxyhaemoglobin at different carbon dioxide concentrations (the Bohr effect);

(s) describe and explain the significance of the increase in the red blood cell count of humans at high
altitude;

(t) describe the external and internal structure of the mammalian heart;

(u) explain the differences in the thickness of the walls of the different chambers in terms of their functions;

(v) describe the mammalian circulatory system as a closed double circulation;

(w) describe the cardiac cycle (including blood pressure changes during systole and diastole);

(x) explain how heart action is initiated and controlled (reference should be made to the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node and the Purkyne tissue);

(y) use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.